PiscesLogoSmallerStill Redundancy Analysis

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Redundancy Analysis is an extension of multiple regression when there is more than one response (species) variable. If there is only one species then RA reduces to a simple multiple regression. It was first proposed by Rao (1964) but has been little used by biologists. A good description of the procedure is to be found in Legendre & Legendre (1998).


The input data comprises a biological data set of samples/species and another set of environmental/explanatory variables. The results are normally presented as a biplot.


Working samples/species data

Sample/species data

Environmental data

Working environmental data